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Given Morissette's alarmingly swift rise to fame and considerable fortune , it's perhaps not surprising that she has spent much of the ensuing decades engaging in deep soul-searching Rex Features. You can form your own view. Subscribe now.
Government and NGO jobs are an option, but many careers are effectively closed off. It was also the final port of call for the Titanic on April 11, News reports said that Ms. But that raises the possibility of spending long, stressful years and a small fortune trying to have a baby. Ireland comes to life in summer, promising sparkling surf, one-of-a-kind camping trips and fantastic festivals.
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Please try again, the name must be unique. Loading comments Post Cancel. There are no Independent Minds comments yet - be the first to add your thoughts. Follow comments Enter your email to follow new comments on this article. Thanks for subscribing! Vote Are you sure you want to submit this vote? Submit vote Cancel. Though geologists had bickered for 60 years before reaching a consensus on continental drift, Alvarez declared the extinction debate over and done within two years.
Ground down by acrimony, many critics of the asteroid hypothesis withdrew—including Officer and McLean, two of the most outspoken opponents. Younger scientists avoided the topic, fearing that they might jeopardize their careers. The impact theory solidified, and volcanism was largely abandoned. But not by everyone. As Keller has steadily accumulated evidence to undermine the asteroid hypothesis, the animosity between her and the impacters has only intensified. As the five-hour drive to our hotel in rural India turned into 12 after a stop to gather rock samples, Keller aired a long list of grievances.
She said impacters had warned some of her collaborators not to work with her, even contacting their supervisors in order to pressure them to sever ties. Thierry Adatte and Wolfgang Stinnesbeck, who have worked with Keller for years, confirmed this. Keller planned to spend a week gathering rocks in two different regions of India, beginning with the area around Basar, a dusty village of 5, in the center of the country. Our days in the field settled into a predictable routine. From about every morning until as late as midnight, we fanned out from the hotel.
Our six- or seven-hour drives to distant quarries revealed the rhythms of rural neighborhoods, where women still fetched water from communal pumps and shepherds scrolled on smartphones while grazing their flocks. The geologists were searching for outcrops—areas where erosion, construction, or tectonic activity had exposed the inner layers of rock formations, from which the scientists could decode the history of the landscape.
Most mornings, Thierry Adatte set our course by studying satellite images for signs of quarries big beige rectangles or switchback roads pale zigzags. For someone accustomed to thinking about time in multimillion-year increments, Keller grew surprisingly impatient over wasted minutes. The forams, for example, gradually shrank, declined in number, and showed less diversity, until only a handful of species remained—results consistent with what many paleontologists have observed for animals on land during the same time.
More problematic still, Chicxulub did not appear to Keller to have been particularly deadly. And then there was the issue of the four previous mass extinctions.
None appeared to have been triggered by an impact, although numerous other asteroids have pummeled our planet over the millennia. Pro-impact scientists counter that not only was the Chicxulub asteroid gigantic, it also landed in the deadliest possible site : in shallow waters, where it kicked up climate-altering vaporized rock. They reasoned that the two must be synchronous, because the destruction caused by the asteroid would have been near-instantaneous.
This looked like circular logic to Keller, who in set out to investigate whether the two really were concurrent.
This was evidence that thousands of years had elapsed in between, she argued. Based on similar results from Haiti, Texas, and elsewhere in Mexico, Keller concluded that the asteroid had hit , years before the extinction—far too early to have caused it. So what did cause it? Keller began searching for other possible culprits. She was looking for a menace that had become gradually more deadly over hundreds of thousands of years, such that it would have caused increasing stress followed by a final, dramatic obliteration.
The fifth extinction, the one that doomed the dinosaurs, occurred just as one of the largest volcanoes in history seethed in the Deccan Traps. On this excursion, Keller hoped to gather samples that would allow her to create a detailed timeline of Deccan activity in the , years leading up to the extinction. The goal: to see whether its biggest belches correlated with environmental stress and mass dying around the world.
Basar was miles east of some of the highest points in the Deccan Traps, an area near the epicenter of the eruptions. Keller had chosen Basar because she suspected that the long, low stretches of basalt around us had been formed by some of the largest lava flows—ejected during major eruptions immediately preceding the extinction.
To prove that, however, Keller needed to have the rock dated. We were snaking down a sinewy road one afternoon when Adatte hollered, the van screeched to a stop, and everyone scrambled out to inspect a steep hill in the elbow of a hairpin turn. Rising up from the asphalt were several yards of pebbly, khaki-colored rock, then a thin band of seafoam-green rock, followed by a pinkish layer, and then round, brown rocks interspersed with white roots. Adatte sank to his knees and burrowed into the pebbles. Eddy licked a rock, to determine whether it was clay. Keller sprinted up the incline until she was eye level with the greenish layer.
She translated the outcrop for me as though it were text in a foreign language. Rocks record the passage of time vertically: The distance between where Adatte sat covered in gravel and where Keller perched at the top of the hill potentially represented the progression of several hundred thousand years. She passed me a chunk of the seafoam-colored rock and pointed to a tiny white fossil protruding like a baby tooth: evidence of tempestites, broken shells carried in by a storm.
The pinkish soil above that had been buried under lava—the brown rocks covered with tangled roots. Since the pinkish layer and the shells predated the flows, they could help pinpoint that particular eruption. Geology is a field of delayed gratification, and there was little else the scientists could say definitively before getting the samples into a lab. While Syed Khadri fielded questions from puzzled locals who wanted to know why the foreigners were playing in the dirt, Keller, Adatte, and Eddy filled clear-plastic bags with fistfuls of rock to ship home.
Back in the van, Adatte told me about a recent conference where several researchers had debated the validity of Deccan volcanism versus the impact theory in front of an audience of their peers, who had then voted, by a show of hands, on which they thought had caused the extinction. Adatte said the result was 70—30 in favor of volcanism. Our long stretches in the car provided Keller ample time to continue inventorying her own numerous brushes with extinction.
Her childhood could pass for the opening of a Brothers Grimm fairy tale. According to stories Keller heard as a kid, their fortune from hotels and real estate kept the children wearing Parisian couture and summering in Austria. The young couple took out loans to buy a farm, where they raised cows, sheep, ducks, rabbits, vegetables, and their 12 children, the sixth of whom was Keller. Keller grew up among rocks, in the alpine crevices of a Swiss village where the neighbors still believed in witches. Then, much as now, she considered herself in a league apart from her peers.
At age 12, Keller wanted to become a doctor. Her teacher, concerned by these delusions of grandeur, called in a Jungian psychologist to administer a Rorschach test and remind Keller that the daughter of such a poor family should aspire to less. Two years later, Keller—given the choice of becoming a maid, a salesgirl, or a seamstress—apprenticed with a dressmaker. Her mother hoped that she would help clothe her siblings. In her teens, Keller resolved to die before she turned She tried to kill herself by taking sleeping pills, failed, then figured she would live as dangerously as possible and die in the process.
In , at age 19, Keller quit her job in Zurich and hitchhiked through Spain and North Africa for six months. She continued her trek around the globe: Greece, Israel, Czechoslovakia, and Austria, where her plan to continue on to Russia was interrupted when her health failed. It was hepatitis, which she had contracted at the Algerian border. After a year of recovery, Keller set sail from Genoa to Australia, which she planned to use as a jumping-off point for travel throughout Asia. Keller recalls that during the three-week journey, her ship collided with its sister vessel, hit a typhoon in the Indian Ocean, and was found to be infested with mafiosi smuggling weapons.
But Keller spoke better English than the official realized. A priest came to administer last rites and, as Keller hovered in and out of consciousness, commanded her to confess her sins. Twice, she refused. The experience also cured her of her death wish. Keller eventually made her way to Asia, then arrived in California with plans to continue to South America. Instead, she settled in San Francisco and, at age 24, returned to school. She enrolled in community college, telling the registrar that her academic records had been destroyed in a fire, and later transferred to San Francisco State University, where she majored in anthropology, the most scientific field she could enter without a background in math or science.
Her passion for mass extinction began with a geology class she took during her junior year. She became the first member of her family to graduate from college, and then one of the first women to receive a doctoral degree in earth sciences from Stanford. In , she joined the faculty at Princeton, where she is currently one of two tenured women in the geosciences department. Although Keller is alert to situations in which women are treated differently from men, she hesitates to blame sexism for the hostility she has faced. Keller adores her work. Never before have I encountered someone so gleeful about catastrophe.
To her, mass extinctions are not depressing.
And the only way to find out is really to study the history. Instead, she expressed a dim view of what 44, years of human civilization will leave behind, much less her own few decades on the planet. A nanosecond in history. Who will find our remains? Laki let loose clouds of sulfur, fluorine, and hydrofluoric acid, blanketing Europe with the stench of rotten eggs. The sun disappeared behind a haze so thick that at noon it was too dark to read. Destruction was immediate.
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Acid rain burned through leaves, blistered unprotected skin, and poisoned plants. People and animals developed deformed joints, softened bones, cracked gums, and strange growths on their bodies—all symptoms of fluorine poisoning. Mass death began eight days after the eruption. And the misery spread. Throughout Europe, crops turned white and withered, and in June, desiccated leaves covered the ground as though it were October. For basically , years before the massive die-off. Laki released 3. It took us five hours of driving, an hour-and-a-half flight from Hyderabad to Pune, and another three hours in the car to trace the lava flows from some of their farthest, flattest reaches back to some of their highest points, in Mahabaleshwar, a vertiginous town crowded with honeymooners.
Mountains of basalt 2. Even the geologists, who had visited the Deccan Traps multiple times before, gaped at the landscape. At the base of an undulating wall of black basalt, Keller ran her hand over a blood-colored layer of rock, bumpy and inflamed as a scab. Absolutely huge. In the illustration, dinosaurs, gurgling lime-green vomit, writhe on a hill spotted with flames and charred tree stumps; just behind them, a diagonal gash in the ground blazes with lava and spews dark, swirling clouds.
As she sees it, the ash, mercury, and lead would have settled over habitats, poisoning creatures and their food supply. The belches of sulfur would have initially cooled the climate, then they would have drenched the Earth in acid rain, ravaging the oceans and destroying vegetation that land animals needed to survive.
The combination of carbon dioxide and methane would have eventually raised temperatures on land by as much as Once these microscopic creatures disappear from the base of the food chain, larger marine animals follow. Rocks elsewhere in the world support the sequence of events Keller has discerned in the Deccan Traps. She and her collaborators have found evidence of climate change and skyrocketing mercury levels following the largest eruptions, and other researchers have documented elevated concentrations of sulfur and chlorine consistent with severe pollution by volcanic gases.
The volcano simmered long after most species had vanished, keeping the planet nearly uninhabitable. After nearly 40 years of arguing, the two sides still cannot agree on fundamental facts. They argue that there is no evidence that species suffered while Deccan simmered, and that the biggest volcanic eruptions occurred after the extinction, too late to have been the catalyst. Some scientists have attempted to find a middle ground between the two camps. But Keller rejects this hypothesis. The greatest area of consensus between the volcanists and the impacters seems to be on what insults to sling.
Both sides accuse the other of ignoring data. All the squabbling raises a question: How will the public know when scientists have determined which scenario is right? It is tempting, but unreliable, to trust what appears to be the majority opinion. Case closed, again. Science is not done by vote. Ultimately, consensus may be the wrong goal. Adrian Currie, a philosopher of science at Cambridge University, worries that the feverish competition in academia coupled with the need to curry favor with colleagues—in order to get published, get tenure, or get grant money—rewards timid research at the expense of maverick undertakings.
He and others argue that controversy produces progress, pushing experts to take on more sophisticated questions. Though trading insults is not the mark of dispassionate scientific research, perhaps detached investigation is not ideal, either. It is passion, after all, that drives scientists to dig deeper, defy the majority, and hunt rocks in rural India for 12 hours at a stretch while suffering acute gastrointestinal distress.
The sight of their jagged outlines simultaneously transported her back in time 66 million years, to when the Indian subcontinent split apart, spewing gas, ash, and fire. That, in turn, evoked the eventual demise of the human species, which Keller argues will be triggered by forces similar to Deccan volcanism.
Keller fears that we are filling our environment with the same ingredients—sulfur, carbon dioxide, mercury, and more—that killed the dinosaurs and that, left unchecked, will catalyze another mass extinction, this one of our own devising. Keller sees a bleak future when she looks at our present. Oceans are acidifying. The climate is warming. Mercury levels are rising. Countless species are endangered and staring down extinction—much like the gradual, then rapid, downfall of the forams.
Whether or not Deccan ultimately caused the mass extinction, its eruptions illuminate how our current environment may react to man-made pollutants.