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Please review your cart. A digital revolution: comparison of demographic profiles, attitudes and gambling behavior of Internet and non-Internet gamblers. Motivating and inhibiting factors in online gambling behaviour: a grounded theory study.
Int J Ment Health Addict. Why do Internet gamblers prefer online versus land-based venues? Some preliminary findings and implications. J Gambl Issues. Cotte J, Latour KA. Blackjack in the kitchen: understanding online versus casino gambling. J Consum Res. Attitudes towards Internet gambling: perceptions of responsible gambling, consumer protection, and regulation of gambling sites. The impact of Internet gambling on gambling problems: a comparison of moderate-risk and problem Internet and non-Internet gamblers.
Based on a large online survey, moderate-risk and problem gamblers were compared based on their use of Internet gambling. The results demonstrate that Internet gamblers who experience gambling-related harms appear to represent a somewhat different group from non-Internet problem and moderate-risk gamblers—Internet gamblers were younger, engaged in a greater number of gambling activities, and were more likely to bet on sports. Griffiths MD, Parke J. The social impact of internet gambling. Soc Sci Comput Rev.
National Gambling Impact Study Commission. The legalization of Internet gambling: a consumer protection perspective. J Public Policy Markk. Problem gambling on the Internet: implications for Internet gambling policy in North America. New Media Soc. This paper was based on one of the first comprehensive studies of Internet gambling in a Canadian and international sample.
The article provided substantial new insight into how Internet and land-based gamblers differ. A study of differences in Canadian university students' gambling and proximity to a casino. Understanding the influence of gambling opportunities: expanding exposure models to include adaptation. Am J Orthopsychiat.
Reith G. Beyond addiction or compulsion: the continuing role of environment in the case of pathological gambling. Links between casino proximity and gambling participation, expenditure, and pathology. Access or adaptation? A meta-analysis of surveys of problem gambling prevalence in Australia and New Zealand with respect of concentration of electronic gaming machines. The relationship of ecological and geographic factors to gambling behavior and pathology.
J Gambl Stud. Sociodemographic correlates of internet gambling: findings from the British gambling prevalence survey. Cyberpsychol Behav. New Med Soc. A scoping study of the structural and situational characteristics of Internet gambling. Valentine G, Hughes K. Shared space, distant lives? Understanding family and intimacy at home through the lens of internet gambling. T I Brit Geogr. The relationship between Internet gambling and problem gambling. Routledge Handbook on Internet Gambling. Oxon, UK; How risky is Internet gambling? A comparison of subgroups of Internet gamblers based on problem gambling status.
Based on an online survey, problem and non-problem Internet gamblers were compared. Problem gamblers were shown to represent a distinct cohort of gamblers, demonstrating the heterogeneity of Internet gamblers. Problem gambling respondents were younger, less educated, had higher household debt, lost more money and gambled on a greater number of activities, and were more likely to use drugs while gambling as compared to non-problem and at-risk gamblers.
For problem gamblers, Internet gambling poses unique problems related to electronic payment and constant availability leading to disrupted sleeping and eating patterns. Interactive gambling. Report commissioned by Gambling Research Australia.
The influence of online gambling environments on self-control. Journal Public Policy Mark.
Wood R, Williams R. Internet gambling: prevalence, patterns, problems, and policy options. Svensson J, Romild U. Incidence of Internet gambling in Sweden: results from the Swedish longitudinal gambling study. Characteristics and help-seeking behaviors of internet gamblers based on most problematic mode of gambling.
J Med Internet Res. A comparative profile of the Internet gambler: demographic characteristics, game play patterns, and problem gambling status. Internet gambling, health, smoking and alcohol use: findings from the British Gambling Prevalence Survey. Are online gamblers more at risk than offline gamblers? Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. Cognitive distortions as a problem gambling risk factor in Internet gambling.
Many jurisdictions, local as well as national, either ban gambling or heavily control it by licensing the vendors. A comprehensive review on Capgras misidentification phenomenon and case report involving attempted murder under Capgras syndrome in a relapse of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. This study used Internet gamblers from only one gambling service and these results might not generalize to other populations. Three examples of the completed practical checklist are presented to highlight the similarities and differences in digital activities that feature aspects of gambling. Alcohol and gambling pathology among U. DSM 5.
Petry NM. Internet gambling: an emerging concern in family practice medicine? Fam Pract. Defining the online gambler and patterns of behaviour integration: evidence from the British Gambling Prevalence Survey Int Gamb Stud. This paper presented analyses based on the British Gambling Prevalence Survey examining the integration of online and offline gambling, including gamblers that use both modes. This was one of the first papers to highlight that there are very few pure Internet-only gamblers and gambling problems appeared to be highest among those who were more involved in a variety of forms.
McBride J, Derevensky J. Internet gambling behavior in a sample of online gamblers. Disordered gambling, type of gambling and gambling involvement in the British Gambling Prevalence Survey Eur J Public Health. Online gambling participation and problem gambling severity: is there a causal relationship? This paper presents the results of a sophisticated analysis of several gambling prevalence surveys. Controlling for involvement, the analyses demonstrate that Internet gambling is not related to gambling problems and public health concerns based on simplistic analyses may be overstated.
The association of form of gambling with problem gambling among American youth. New Zealand National Gambling Study: gambling harm and problem gambling: report number 2. AUT University; Gambling and problem gambling in the United States: changes between and Associations between national gambling policies and disordered gambling prevalence rates within Europe.
Int J Law Psychiat. The interaction between gambling activities and modes of access: a comparison of Internet-only, land-based only, and mixed-mode gamblers. Addict Behav. Based on a large online survey, participants were compared based on their use of Internet, as well as land-based gambling. Results demonstrate that gamblers using both Internet and land-based modes had the greatest overall involvement in gambling and greatest level of gambling problems.
This study confirms the importance of considering gambling involvement across subgroups of Internet or land-based gamblers. Internet gamblers: a latent class analysis of their behaviours and health experiences. This paper reports the results of a large online survey in the UK using latent class analyses to identify subgroups of gamblers based on their use of the Internet to gamble. This was one of the first papers to move away from the dichotomy of Internet vs.
Breadth and depth involvement: understanding Internet gambling involvement and its relationship to gambling problems. This is one of a series of papers based on an online database of actual gamblers from a European operator. This paper includes the innovative methodology of a self-report screen with behavioural data.
Analysing gambling across different types of activities, this paper demonstrates that the extent of overall involvement types of games and days played is related to gambling problems. Analyses of multiple types of online gambling within one provider: an extended evaluation framework of actual online gambling behaviour.
Risk of harm from gambling in the general population as a function of level of participation in gambling activities. Holtgraves T. Evaluating the problem gambling severity index. Games and gambling involvement among casino patrons. An examination of participation in online gambling activities and the relationship with problem gambling.
J Behav Addict. Does Pareto rule Internet gambling? The characteristics of this high-risk subgroup were as follows: i frequent and ii intensive betting combined with iii high variability across wager amount and iv an increasing wager size during the first month of betting.
Background: The goal of this study is to identify betting patterns ever been exposed to gambling activities worldwide, ∼5% experience some. Gambling and gaming activities have become increasingly recognised as . The identification of critical points of difference in digital forms of.
Conclusion: This analysis provides important information that can help to identify potentially problematic gamblers during the early stages of gambling-related problems. Public health workers can use these results to develop early interventions that target high-risk Internet gamblers for prevention efforts. However, one study limitation is that the results distinguish only a small proportion of the total sample; therefore, additional research will be necessary to identify markers that can classify larger segments of high-risk gamblers.
The availability of Internet gambling services raises public health and public policy concerns about their potential to influence the development of gambling-related addiction. Xuan and Shaffer compared the gambling behaviours of self-identified live-action Internet bettors during the month prior to closing their accounts because of gambling-related problems with the gambling behaviours of a matched sample of live-action gamblers who did not close their accounts.
Live-action betting allows gamblers to follow a particular sporting event and to bet on an immediate proposition within the event while the event is occurring e. Xuan and Shaffer 23 found that those who closed their accounts due to gambling-related problems experienced increasing money loss, increasing stakes per bet, and increasingly shorter odds bets as the time of account closure approached. In this new study, instead of using the last segment of prospective betting patterns, we used the initial betting patterns from the same sample of gamblers used by Xuan and Shaffer. The syndrome model of addiction 24 suggests an aetiological approach to the emergence of addiction.
From this perspective, antecedent distal e. These aetiological antecedents include individual vulnerability factors e. There is growing evidence that many distal e. The purpose of this study is to examine some proximal features associated with gambling that might influence or relate to the emergence of addiction. Specifically, we investigate whether several gambling characteristics cluster in a reliable way during the first month of Internet gambling to identify live-action sports betters who will later close their accounts due to gambling-related problems.
We considered four characteristics of first-month gambling to be important candidate variables that might distinguish between account closers and other gamblers: gambling frequency; gambling intensity; gambling trajectory; and gambling variability. Research has shown that gamblers vary in their gambling frequency i. For example, LaBrie et al. Another potentially important characteristic that might identify high-risk gambling behaviour early in a sequence is gambling trajectory, i. LaPlante et al.
The American Psychiatric Association has identified a need to increase the amount of wagers to achieve the desired excitement previously experienced at lower levels of wagering e. Previous studies showed that a uniform, stable and consistent gambling pattern characterizes the majority of Internet gamblers. Consequently, we hypothesize that gambling frequency, intensity, variability and the tendency to increase or decrease wagers trajectory during the first month of Internet live-action gambling, will identify reliable and meaningfully different subgroups of gamblers.
In addition, we examine whether members of any of the identified subgroups are more likely to develop gambling-related problems than others. For a complete description of this sample, interested readers should see LaBrie et al. Of those, formally closed an account after 1 month and before the end of a 2-year period, and reported the reason for closing by selecting one of three available choices: i having no further interest in gambling; ii being unsatisfied with the service; or iii due to gambling-related problems.
This last choice did not specify a particular range or intensity of problems. Finally, we excluded 69 participants who had less than two active gambling days during the first month. We excluded these participants because it was impossible to calculate some variables e.
Nineteen of those 69 participants reported closing their account because of gambling-related problems. Our gambling behaviour measures represented daily aggregates of betting activity records during the first 30 days, starting with the first live-action betting day.
From this available information, we calculated four variables that describe a pattern of gambling activity: i frequency—total number of active days i. To calculate trajectory, we coded the active betting days sequentially i. We then computed a linear regression model with wager as a dependent variable and a sequence number as a predictor. We used the slope coefficient of the regression model to describe the trajectory of wager.
A positive slope value indicated increasing wager size; a negative slope value reflected a decreasing pattern of wager size. In addition to these early predictors, we calculated the following variables that summarize betting behaviour for the entire period of gambling i. We used a k -means cluster analysis to identify subgroups clusters of users with similar first-month gambling behaviours. We created the k -means clusters by associating every observation with the nearest mean. The final partition method minimizes the distances between observed scores and the cluster centres. After identifying clusters, we conducted a chi-square test to identify meaningful associations between cluster membership and reason for closing an account i.
We used the k -means cluster analysis to partition observations into k relatively homogeneous subgroups or clusters. All cases that belong to a single cluster demonstrate similar patterns of behaviours, as defined by the variables included in the cluster analysis. A major drawback of k -means cluster analysis is its potential instability. Consequently, to ensure the reliability of the results, we split the sample randomly into two halves and repeated the same clustering procedure for each subgroup independently. We also calculated a Kappa degree of concordance in cluster membership by comparing memberships of both subsamples separately with the memberships of the total sample.
Following this procedure for 3—10 clusters, we identified a four-cluster solution as stable and reliable. The mean age at the time of registration was There were no other gender differences. As table 1 shows, the k -means cluster analysis identified four clusters of Internet gamblers distinguished by high versus low z -scores for each variable.
We conducted a series of post hoc one-way analysis of variance ANOVAs tests to examine the differences between the four clusters. We contrasted the group that closed their account for gambling-related problems with the other two account closing groups i. The other three clusters did not differ significantly from each other.
Consequently, we performed a logarithmic transformation natural logarithm on these variables to ensure normality. Table 2 presents the mean values of these variables for each subgroup. There was no significant difference for the period of gambling. Mean values of variables that describe gambling behaviours of different clusters for the entire period of gambling. To determine whether demographic characteristics were associated with subgroup membership, we conducted a series of chi-square analyses for categorical variables and ANOVA for the continuous age variable.
Finally, a series of t -tests revealed that no single variable frequency, intensity, variability or trajectory was associated with closing an account due to gambling-related problems [ t ranged from 0. The k -means cluster analysis identified four meaningful subgroups of Internet live-action gamblers based on their actual first 30 days of live-action betting. Gamblers characterized by high-intensity and frequency of gambling and by high variability of wager sizes were at higher risk than other gamblers to report gambling-related problems upon closing their accounts.
To our knowledge, this study is the first to use cluster analysis to identify a group of gamblers at higher risk for reporting gambling-related problems.